TUESDAY 10 OCTOBER
Recent Improvements and Cost Reduction in the CANSOLV CO2 Capture Process
Speaker: Paul-Emmanuel Just, Shell Global Solutions
An extensive pilot plant test was performed to obtain operational data at higher regeneration pressure (4 bara instead of 2 bara) while using an enhanced amine blend of CANSOLV DC103. The key performance indicators (KPIs) monitored included regeneration energy, amine degradation rate and emissions. DC103 Alpha, in combination with high pressure regeneration (4.0 bara), achieved the largest reduction in reboiler duty compared to the base case (DC-103 at 2.0 bara) with up to 10% reduction in specific energy (GJ per ton of CO2 captured). The amine degradation rate remained constant for both amine regeneration pressures. The combination of a small relative increase in temperature and the inherent resistance of DC103 amine structure against degradation may explain this stability at increased pressure. The emissions at stack were monitored and the 24 hours average amine emissions remained significantly below the emission target level of 0.2 ppmv, excluding few events of abnormal operating conditions, such as plant trip. It was established that the use of the enhanced DC 103 blends can still meet the amine emissions commitments.
The following items will be beneficially impacted by high regeneration pressure: reduced CO2 compression power and number of CO2 compression stages; reduced reboiler duty and steam consumption; reduced regenerator column diameter and height and reduced regenerator condenser area.
Improving Sulphur Recovery Unit flexibility and performance through Reaction Furnace Fuel Gas Co-firing and Oxygen Enrichment
Speaker: Alessandro Mari, Saipem and Adriaan Roux, Comprimo
Authors: Alessandro Mari and Sabrina D'Orazio, Saipem; Adriaan Roux, Comprimo; and Mohammed Al-Qahtani, Saudi Aramco
The objective is to go over the design approach to detail design three Sulphur Recovery Units (SRU) in Tanajib Gas Plant Project (Saudi Arabia) and achieve Saudi Aramco environmental goal of minimizing emissions (including acid gas flaring).
Due to the wide range of acid gas compositions, many design challenges appeared during detail design. The capacity of each SRU Train can be varied from 850 metric tons per day (MTPD) of produced sulphur, when the train operates with Fuel Gas co-firing, to 1,275 MTPD when operating with Oxygen Enrichment. Utilizing oxygen enrichment when one SRU train is taken out for maintenance, the capacity of the remaining two can be increased to 50% of the total feed flow each as, using Oxygen Enrichment, the inert nitrogen is being replaced by reactive acid gas.
Moreover, the application of combined co-firing and oxygen enrichment guarantees a remarkable operational flexibility both in terms of plant capacity and rangeability of Acid Gas composition.
Saipem, Saudi Aramco Project Management Team (SAPMT), Comprimo and the Burner supplier worked together to develop solutions to mitigate the risk associated to this operating mode.
RotaSep for Combined Liquid and Solid Separation from Gases without Replaceables or Shutdowns
Speaker: Piet Geerts, SDS Separation Technology
RotaSep is based on a next generation gas-liquid and gas-solid separation technology using a rotating internal and centrifugal forces to separate 1 micrometer fine particles from gases in order to protect sensitive equipment like compressors. The unique performance of RotaSep in bulk gas flows results in relatively very compact separation packages that proves increasing distinct performance and advantages at increased operating pressure.
After 99.5% certified 1µm particle separation was shown in a demo unit earlier this year RotaSep showed a step-change in separation performance in removing liquids and fine solids from a natural gas stream on a North Sea offshore platform. Filter cartridges, multi-stage cyclone internals were not able to deliver this performance without frequent shutdown and maintenance. RotaSep has now resolved these issues and was the only technology to fit in the available space. With these results for RotaSep the applied platform technology offers large potential to service many processes in the existing and renewable gas processing facilities.
Horizontal Separation Membranes for CO2 Capture—First in Southeast Asia
Speaker: Srinivas Vadlamani, SLB
This abstract showcases the use of horizontal CO2 separation membranes for one of the world’s largest offshore carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) projects and the first such venture in Southeast Asia. The Phase 2 project objective is to recover hydrocarbons from CO2-rich natural gas permeating from the Phase 1 facilities, eliminating 3.3 metric tons of CO2e emissions per year.
Horizontal CO2 separation membranes were selected as the most economical solution for this application. The membrane technology offers numerous advantages over other acid gas removal technologies, especially for natural gas streams with high concentrations of CO2. Key advantages include the membrane’s compact and modular design, no need for solvent or pumps, long operating life, high energy efficiency, no foaming or other operational issues, and low capex and opex, leading to the lowest overall life-cycle costs. Additionally, a digital solution has been integrated for continuous performance monitoring, which enables operational tuning and proactive membrane replacement over the life of the project.
First Installation of Durasorb LNG MAX to Address Coldbox Freezing and Increase LNG Production
Speaker: Tobias Eckart, BASF Process Catalysts Group
Coldbox freezing by heavy hydrocarbons (HHCs) causing reduced LNG throughput is a known problem in the industry. This challenge is particularly acute in the US, where LNG facilities are fed by lean pipeline gas, but also a concern in other parts of the world where plants are faced with changing feedgas compositions. To address this problem, and restore maximum throughput to LNG facilities, BASF has proposed an adsorbent solution for the removal of HHCs from lean gas.
BASF, working with Kinder Morgan at the Elba Island LNG facility, has implemented Durasorb technology, which eliminated deriming events, decreased operational complexity, and increased LNG production. In Summer of 2022, molecular sieves were removed from the dehydration unit and replaced with Durasorb products. After change out of adsorbent materials and minor modifications to cycle times, the two trains running Durasorb are removing water to LNG specifications and heavy hydrocarbons (C8+, BTX) to levels that do not cause freezing. The removal of HHCs in the adsorption section has resulted in steady pressure drop (dp) readings in the cold section, eliminating the need for deriming events, and increasing LNG production throughput. This simple drop-in solution did not require CapEx.
Liquid Hydrogen-NH3 and LNG Storage Comparison
Speaker: Nikos Xynopoulos, Linde Hellas
Authors: Nikos Diamantakis, Heriot-Watt University; Vassilis Kyriakou, University of Groningen, and Aleksandar Mirkovic, University of Belgrade
In this study, a comparative techno-economic analysis of short-term storage and transportation options between LH2, LNG, and NH3 is conducted/presented. The physicochemical properties, potential hazards, current production maturity level, and current transportation-storage options for the three energy carriers, are overviewed. More specifically, the main storage tank types for LH2, LNG, and NH3 are reviewed focusing on liquid stratification issues, boil-off phenomena, material compatibility, the role of He/N2, design considerations, pressure relief systems, and energy requirements. A simple recirculation/leakage simulation is conducted using ASPEN HYSYS for each storage tank option in order to highlight the similarities among them, as well as the challenges of each particular case. Their onshore and offshore storage feasibility status and future perspectives are finally discussed on the basis of these associated challenges, including potential ways to overcome them.
Innovation and Technology Deployment in Gas Processes
Speaker: Abdullah Bagazi, Aramco
Uthmaniyah, one of the largest Aramco gas processing plants, is located in Udhailiyah 170 KM south west from Dhahran. Uthmaniyah Gas Plant (UGP) was commissioned in 1981 as part of Aramco’s Master Gas System to process associated gas from oil wells. UGP has been recognized by the World Economic Forum (WEF) as a “Lighthouse” manufacturing facility, a leader in technology applications of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, which enabled Aramco to be the first global energy company in the oil and gas sector of such recognition.
Aramco’ long term investment in innovation, technology deployment and operational excellence, which has made UGP to be one of the world’s most efficient facilities in gas processing, environment and energy management. This presentation will talk about the latest deployed programs including Enhanced Liquid Hydrocarbon Recovery, Flare Gas Recovery System (FGR), Combined Heat & Power Systems, and Steam Turbine Generator (STG).
WEDNESDAY 11 OCTOBER
Implementation of Rigorous Modelling and Optimization Tools for Sustainable Production of Green Ammonia
Speaker: Laura Fiorillo, Siemens Process Systems Engineering Limited
Only 40% of global CO2 emissions originate from power generation which can be decarbonized via renewable power, whereas the other 60% of CO2 emissions originate from industry, transportation, buildings, and others. Green hydrogen is a versatile energy carrier that can be applied to decarbonization, either used directly or in the form of its derivatives like methanol, ammonia, or e-fuels to replace traditional energy sources that are believed to be the cause of climate change. This work aims to focus on the challenges, opportunities, and future potentials with ammonia as a carbon-free chemical, by introducing and implementing cutting-edge simulation tools that allow for the exploration of wider aspects of the green ammonia process such as yield, energy consumption sustainability, to overcome barriers related to production, storage and usage. The use of advanced modelling can comprehensively explore the domain of various factors over KPI’s to assess the impact of different storage unit sizes, different energy management strategies to cope with fluctuations associated to wind energy and load on ammonia reactor to maintain stability within the system. This is done to optimize the process and reduce both energy consumption and gas emissions.
Hybrid Water-Splitting Technology as a Novel Approach to Efficiently Produce Green Hydrogen
Speakers: Dr Hasan Ozcan
Nicholas Amotta,b, Dan Somersb, Samantha Nicholsona, Bahman Amini Horric
a Fluor UK, Headquarter Office, Farnborough, Hampshire, GU14 7BF, UK
b Clean Hydrogen Limited, London, WC2A 2JR, UK
c School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH, UK
As a non-toxic, renewable, transportable, and emission-free energy carrier, hydrogen is becoming a popular alternative fuel in the energy sector. We have recently developed a hybrid water-splitting technology based on the chemical looping principle by combining "hydrothermal" and "electrochemical" processes capable of delivering green hydrogen at high efficiency. At the heart of the patented process, a hydrothermal reactor, functioning as the oxidation unit, operates side-by-side with a modified alkaline electrolyser as the reduction unit to deploy a complete red-ox loop for water splitting. The hydrothermal reactor facilitates the reaction between water and an active metallic reagent in an alkali solution at 150 – 400 °C to directly produce hydrogen (1 – 200 bar). The thermodynamically favoured reaction between water and the active metal generates excess heat, which can be recovered as superheated steam and potentially converted to electricity to balance the renewable input. The modified-alkaline electrolyser operating at 15 – 85 °C reactivates the spent metal oxide composite (reduction step) and simultaneously produces hydrogen at the cathode surface. Such a dual hydrogen harvesting approach, plus the heat recovery system, leads to a much higher energy efficiency (~90%, measured with Surrey's prototype lab-scale system) compared to the state-of-the-art water electrolysis technologies like PEM and alkaline electrolysers (~60 - 70%). The process can be deployed as a containerised modular unit integrated with various forms of renewable (solar, wind, hydroelectric, etc.) for large-scale onshore, offshore, or remote applications.
Greening up the Fossil Fuels: CO2 Capture
Speaker: Dr. Eduard Karslyan, BASF SE
As the biggest driver behind the climate crisis, replacement of fossil fuels by renewable, clean energy sources is targeted as the ultimate goal.
Yet, a full transition cannot take place overnight. CO2 capture from combustion and chemical processes helps minimize the emissions of fossil fuels production & consumption industries in a pragmatic way that can be implemented today.
Since 1913, when BASF started first large scale CO2 capture at 1st Haber-Bosch ammonia plant in Oppau, we have been delivering OASE® technologies for carbon capture technologies for pre-combustion and post-combustion CO2 capture of fossil fuels and their derivatives.
Whether we talk about natural gas or LNG, syngas at ammonia and blue H2 plants, or flue gases from various industries (coal, gas, “hard-to-abate”) — every industry has been bringing us certain challenges, unconventional tasks and needs, but also interesting and valuable experience to be shared.
We will also overview the steps of continuous improvement in the areas of energy efficiency, environmental impact and total investment costs, which ensure that such applications remain attractive in the future.
The Electrochemical Reduction of CO2 to Useful Products: A Review
Speaker: Mansoor Al-Shamari, University of Bradford
Authors: Mansoor Al-Shamaria,b,c, Ahmed Khodaryc, Dong Suk Hanb, Iqbal M Mujtabaa, and Nejat Rahmaniana,*
a Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Informatics, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK
b The Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, Qatar
c Qatar Shell Research Technology Center (QSRTC), Qatar
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
The conversion of CO2 gas emission into value-added products such as organic acid (e.g. formic acid (HCOOH), oxalic acid (HOOC ̶ COOH)), alcoholic products (e.g. methanol (CH3OH), ethanol (C2H5OH)), hydrocarbon products (e.g. methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6)), and mineralization with carbonate and bicarbonate, is a promising technology for mitigating the negative impacts of carbon dioxide and other gas emissions from industrial activities and other anthropogenic pollution. The electrochemical reduction (ECR) process is commonly used to convert CO2 into valuable products, and this process's efficiency is dependent on various factors, such as electrocatalysts nanomaterials, electrode geometry, and electrolyte solution. Despite significant advancements in CO2 ECR, several challenges hinder its efficiency, including the high cost of electrocatalyst materials, selectivity toward target products, the effective surface area of electrodes, and reactor dimensions. This article aims to summarize the chemistry of transition metals used for coating the cathodic electrode in CO2 ECR, the effects of various operating conditions on CO2 conversion to products and the mechanisms of reaction for some intermediate and final products will be will be explained.
See What’s Happening in Your Pipeline: The Future of Gas Plant Management
Speaker: Paul Stockwell, Process Vision
The paper explores both the financial the safety issues of allowing liquids into gas transmission networks that lead to $ms of lost revenue and pose serious safety threats.
The two fiscal measurements of flow and calorific value are compromised when liquids are present in dry gas streams. Monitoring gas flows with a new camera system is showing that many gas supplies, thought to be dry, actually contain liquids in mist flows and stratified flows. This paper shares videos of real-world installations and tests showing that many gas processors are giving away BTUs in the form of NGLs without knowing it.
With the ability to look directly into high-pressure gas pipelines, this paper describes how this new technology is discovering that phase separation and NGL recovery systems are not necessarily performing to specification. Traditional analysis systems conforming to API standards to monitor water and hydrocarbon dewpoints can lead the industry to be unaware when fault conditions exist, allowing liquids to pass through custody transfer points without tripping alarms.
Using image processing and machine learning to categorize the severity of contamination is turning interesting videos into data that is being used as a new metric for process control.
How Enhanced Reality Technology Increases Operator Competency and Reduces Human Error
Speaker: Susanna Voges, Voovio Technologies S.L.
Authors: Susanna Voges and Jaime Aguilera, Voovio Technologies S.L.
The baby boomer generation continues to retire and turnover in the process industry (the great resignation) is impacting many manufacturing sites with severe ‘brain drain’ at all levels, especially operators. The industry is searching for ways to make onboarding of new hires and plant specific qualification more efficient and effective. Traditional methods, like classroom training and shadowing experienced colleagues and SMEs for an extended period of time, are important but no longer sufficient.
Moreover, these traditional ways to pass on procedural knowledge tend to be highly dependent on the individual (people), which hinders standardization. Over time, shifts develop different ways of doing things, departing from the original procedure or taking shortcuts. In many instances, this leads to practice in the field not reflecting the written procedure. Our industry has a clear need for more transparency and a higher level of control over the practical procedural knowledge of the workforce (tribal knowledge), as well as a way to check and measure the level of operator knowledge and procedural compliance.
In addition to the shortcomings of traditional training, a common cause for practice in the field not reflecting the written procedures is that the ‘procedure clarity’ is often suboptimal due to the ambiguities or general statements in the procedure steps.
These challenges and shortcomings directly impact operational productivity due to long onboarding times and unplanned equipment downtime as a result of operating errors. They also directly impact plants’ safety performance, especially where actions cannot be automated and secured by safety instrumented systems. The flawless interaction of operators with the asset is an important layer of plant safety.
Enhanced Reality (ER) technology has been proven to solve the challenges described above. It allows simulating standard operating procedures in a photorealistic 3D environment (digital replica) for users to review, practice and test on standard operating procedures on-demand and on any device. Manufacturing organizations can capture their practical procedural expertise (Tribal Knowledge) and are able to measure and track procedure competency across their operators. This methodology has been labelled Digital Twin of the Person (DToP) by Gartner (1), referring to the human-centric approach of this technique.
Our presentation will include case studies from some of the process industries biggest companies that demonstrate the impact of improved procedure clarity and more consistent execution, which reduces unplanned events and speeds up operator onboarding while capturing more ‘tribal knowledge’.